Saturday, June 30, 2012

College Reopening!


This is for my Cute, chweet Friends :)

The first day of month! The month in which I was born. My birthday is coming :) A special thing about this month is, I'm gonna celebrate my birthday after 7 years! That too with friends in hostel! :)

College is reopening tomorrow!  I was a day scholar for the past two years! Now, gonna join in hostel :)
I'm happy about it! Kanmani is in third year of technical education now, Kanmani (biotechnology) 3rd year :)

I'm very much exited in getting back to college tomorrow!

Tomorrow is very special!
Why because,
* The first day of third year!
* College got a new principal , I don't know, whether this change of principal will bring out :) or :( or :'(
But, for now :D
* Classes start only by 11 a.m :)  till 11 :D fun with friends :)
* From this year, we don't have Mathematics :) :D
* From this year, Our HOD is taking gonna take care of us :) He is gonna come for Molecular Biology.
In the 3rd sem, Cell biology was my favorite, then 4th semester - Microbiology, And now, in this sem, it will be Molecular Biology :) :) :)
* I'm gonna join in Hostel this year! :)
But, the sadder part of joining hostel is Mobile phone is not allowed, Facebook & Twitter are blocked :( 
To my goodness, they didn't block Blogs and Indiblogger :)

Results for the previous sem is not out still :( I'm very much worried about it.

A final note to my class mates:
Get to know something about Molecular biology, because, HOD sir may ask us tomorrow, "What is molecular Biology?"
Here you read something:
Molecular Biology deals at molecular level of cellular activities. We will learn about, Proteins, DNA, Blotting,  PCR, Arrays etc., I believe. You can find all this in Wikipedia :P

Blotting: It's searching for a specific sequence in DNA sample.
PCR: PCR allows a single DNA sequence to be copied (millions of times), or altered in predetermined ways.
Arrays: A DNA array is a collection of spots attached to a solid support such as a microscope slide where each spot contains one or more single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide fragment

So, if we read something, we can answer him better. We need not "Sodhappify"( go wrong) the first day itself :P.
All the best :)

The conclusion of this post is "Nothing" I'm leaving to College with full smile on duty!
Wish you, A HAPPY JULY!
Tata :) :)

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Plant Tissue culture - Basics

I know a bit about Plant tissue culture and I would like to share it here.

Plant Tissue culture Rack
Plant Tissue culture, to be simple, it is growing plants in laboratory (invitro). To be more simple, you grow plants in test tubes and bottles by providing them light, nutrient by mimicking the natural conditions.
It is effectively used as tool for producing GM(Genetically Modified) plants.

Don't confuse "plant tissue culture" with "HORTICULTURE"

The basic of Plant Tissue Culture :

Totipotency: The ability of a single plant cell to grow into an entire plant is generally referred as totipotency.

Plasticity: The ability of plants to survive in extreme conditions by modifying their metabolism is generally referred as plasticity.

Things you need to do plant tissue culture
1) Laminar air hood
2) Plant growth chamber
3)Chemicals for preparing medium
5)pH meter
6) Test tubes or Bottles with caps
7) Cotton plugs
8) Scalpels, Forceps, petriplates

I think, that's it. With the above mentioned things you can do plant tissue culture.

STEP 1: Preparation of Glasswares:
Wash your bottles, tubes, scalpels, forceps, petriplates with soap solution.
Acid wash them again.

Preparation of acid solution:
For 1 liter of water add 100 grams of Potassium dichromate.
Dissolve it well.
To this solution add 100 ml of  sulphuric acid along sides.
Note: Be very careful, else, you would get hurt with hot acid vapors.

After acid wash, wash them with double distilled water and rinse well.

STEP 2: Preparation of medium:
Generally MS(Murashige Skoog) medium is used. After dissolving the appropriate amounts of macro and micro nutrients in  sterile distilled water, set pH about 5.6   to 5.8. The pH must be strictly maintained for proper growth. If needed you can add coconut water to your medium after filter sterilising it. Coconut water is a rich source of plant growth hormones like Auxins, cytokinins etc.,

After this, autoclave your medium and pour it into bottles or test tubes in which you are going to grow your plant.

Adaxial surface of leaf
STEP3: Sterilisation of inoculum:
Inoculum is what you are going to inoculate. It may be seed,
If you are going to inoculate seeds. Wash them thoroughly with tap water. Then with mild detergent .Then with distilled water (to remove excess detergent). Then rinse with Mercuric chloride solution of 0.1 % and then wash again with Sterile distilled water for 5 times (each time 5 minutes) to remove traces of mercuric chloride.

Now wipe the seeds and let them dry for sometime. From the washing step with mercuic chloride, carry out in laminar hood using beakers.

If you are going to use leaf or shoot extract. Wash it in tap water thoroughly to remove dust particles. Soak in drinking water for 10 minutes. Then, soak in a beaker containing detergent and shake well for 10 minutes. Then, wash with sterile water. Then, use 0.1% of mercuric chloride for 3minutes and rinse well. Then, wash the explants with sterile distilled water for 5times (five minutes each time) Then, remove excess water with sterile tissue paper.
From the washing step with mercuic chloride, carry out in laminar hood using beakers.

STEP4: Inoculation of explant material:
Scalpels, Forceps, petriplates - the things used for inoculation must be STERILIZED ones. The seeds must be taken with the forceps and inoculate (gently place over the surface of the already prepared MS medium.
The leaves, roots or shoot explant which were surface sterilized as mentioned above - cut them using scalpels and inoculate using forceps. The leaf explants must be placed such that adaxial(upper) side is down.
Growth after incubation - Plant Tissue Culture

STEP4: Incubation:
Incubate in plant growth chamber or Tissue culture rack at the optimum temperature and light intensity for the plant you are using for culture. And provide appropriate dark and light period.

You can find your inoculum growing after a few days :) :)

Happy culturing :)

Note: I have just started learning Plant Tissue Culture techniques. So, there may be mistakes with the above mentioned procedure.

Thursday, June 14, 2012

Lady's Finger and Diabetes

Abelmoschus esculentus (A.esculentus):

Abelmoschus esculentus
Other names:

Okra,lady fingers,gambo, gombo, okura, ocra, bamia ochro, bhindi, bombo, chimbombo, Bhindee, Bhindi, Bindi, Cantarela, Gombaut, Gombo, Bumbo, Mesta, Ochro, Okro, Quiabo, Quimbambo, Quingombo, Rosenapfel, Vendakai, qiu kui, okura, Gumbo. 

Parts Used:
Seed pod or vegetable.

Mode of Action:
It reduces the rate of absorption of sugar in the intestinal tract.

How to consume?
It is generally used as a vegetable. But, consuming it in the following way could help you better in controlling diabetes.

Take a piece of lady's finger (A.esculentus), wash and cut it into pieces. Soak it in a glass of water, overnight. The sticky essence of the capsule gets into the water. Take away the pieces from the water and consume the water in "empty stomach" the next morning.

Cassia auriculata (avaram) and diabetes

Cassia auriculata: (C.auriculata)

Other names: Avaram, Avari Panchaga Choornam, Kalpa Herbal Tea, Ranawara, Senna auriculata, Tanner's Cassia.

It is a shrub about 30 to 60 cms. It is found in India predominantly.

Parts used: Whole plant, mostly buds.

Mode of Action of C.auriculata:
The extract of C.auriculata increases the pancreatic production of insulin from the beta cells of islets by enhancing the transport of glucose into peripheral tissues.
This can be effectively used in case of Type1 diabetes when the insulin secretion is not affected due to mechanical damage of beta cells.

How to consume?
This is available in powder form and can be consumed with hot water else by mixing with your food.

Salacia oblonga (Ponkoranti) and Diabetes

Salacia oblonga: (S.oblonga)
Salacia oblonga

Alternate Names:

English : Salacia
Kannada : Ekanayakam

Malayalam : Ponkoranti, Koranti
Tamil : Ponkoranti
Sanskrit : Vairi, pitika
Telugu : Anukudu cettu
Sinhalese : Himbutu, Kothalahimbutu

This is a woody plant which is found predominantly in India and Srilanka. It is widely used in treatment of diabetes. It is found efficient in reducing blood sugar.

Parts used: Barks and roots.

Mode of Action of S.oblonga Extract:
Our body naturally has alpha-glucosidase enzyme which break downs oligosachcharides into monosachcharides like glucose. The extract from S.oblonga binds to this enzyme and inhibits it. Because of this inhibition, glucose is not released into the blood stream. Thus, blood glucose is maintained.

This can be effectively used in the case of Type 2 diabetes.

Constituents found as anti alpha glucosidases were: Salicinol and kotalanol

How to consume?
Patients can take 3 to 6 grams per day.
It is available in powder form and you can mix it with hot water and take; you can mix it with your food also. 

In Tamil Nadu (India), my dad use to get it in powder form from

Sri Harshini Herbals,
113, T.P.K road,
near Maalai murasu,
Madurai - 625 001.

Fighting the Sweet villan Sugar!

Hello! Wish you loads of smile :) eeee :)

Nowadays, I'm very much interested in reading something new regarding my subject, "Biotechnology".
People say, "oh Kanmani, you are bright student, then why you chose Biotechnology? It has no scope. You won't earn better. You might have chosen ECE, CSC.. something like that..." But, I'm loving my subject. Biotechnology is the branch where you can survive only when you are much interested. You can earn only when you work with interest and thirst to find something new. I'm thirsty nowadays, reading a lot for beginning with a project. But, I'm finding it much difficult to organize and start with. I'm getting hundreds of ideas, but, I find some of them silly, I find  some of them  complicated, I find  some of them  impossible! But, still, with hope in myself and interest in the subject, I'm continuing. I'm reading daily some info regarding researches. My dream is to  find something new and publish an article in a high impact journal. Okay, let's stop here with my story, and go with the main matter.

Abelmoschus esculentus
Today am gonna share something about the medicinal plants used in treatment of diabetes. These plants are used by many Diabetic patients in South India. My dad is also using preparations from these plants for controlling his blood glucose. Here, I'm just sharing the plants which I came to know.

The below mentioned three plants are found to reduce the blood glucose level. 
Cassia auriculata

Note: The information provided here, may not be "accurate". But, I take much care to provide you with correct information. I share whatever I read and understood.

Salacia oblonga

Click here to read about Salacia oblonga
Click here to read about Cassia auriculata
Click here to read about Abelmoschus esculentus

Wish you good time, Have a sugar free life! :))))

Monday, June 11, 2012

A sweet villan! Sugar!

Today I'm gonna share something regarding the world's most popular, wide spread disease, Diabetes
the worst  disease  which people refer as - "sugar!" :( :(
To be more technical, Diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus - "sugar
Types of Diabetes:
Type1: Insulin ( a hormone, regulating carbohydrate balance in body) producing ability of Beta cells of Pancreas is affected. This leads to increase of blood glucose.
Type2: In this type, insulin is available in our body, but, the cells fail to respond to insulin. (insulin resistance)
Gestational: Pregnant women who never had diabetes before, develops diabetes during time of pregnancy.

My dad is also suffering from diabetes :( I never worried about this diabetes when my dad was keeping good health. Suddenly, when one day, my dad said after a medical check up, "I got sugar!", I started crying. I felt so bad. :( :'( My dad goes for morning walk daily, he even don't take non vegetarian much, he takes very rare. He has a planned good diet! 
But, how? How he got diabetes?

My dad  didn't believe, when his doctor told him that he was diabetic. He asked his doctor to go for a check up again because he was very regular and cautious about what he eats. And also, he does exercises.
The doctor too checked up again with his instant blood glucose testing kit and confirmed that my dad was diabetic. :( :(

The reason that doctor told my dad for his disease was "Tension", " work stress"! :( :(
Oh, God, you give diabetes even due to stress? :(

I felt so bad that day when my dad said that he was diabetic. But, he consoled me saying, nowadays every one is suffering from sugar, you don't worry, I can bring it back under control.

And as he said, he brought it under control! Now, his blood sugar is under control :) :D Not with tablets. But by taking some preparations from medicinal plants. Let me explain you about those plants in my next post.

Tata.. Bye.. Wish you a "sugar free" life with loads of smile!
Keep smiling :) :D 

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Pepper - Antimicrobial effect


I was reading for starting a project in microbiology. But, I didn't start with. Here I had shared something which I referred and found useful. This is a post with basic ideas regarding projects so far done with pepper by various scholars and some tips for effective usage of pepper in day to day life to fight against microbes.

We all use pepper, chilli, onion etc in our recipes. You know, they give you strength to fight against microbes?

Pepper is found to be effective against Gram positive bacteria. It affects the cell membrane of the bacteria and destroys it (Mode of action)

Projects carried out so far: (not by me - referred online)

1) Using "disc diffusion method" the zone of inhibition of the crude extract of Piper nigrum ( black pepper) and various other types of pepper were determined on various test species of bacteria.

2) Various combinations such as mixture of "pepper, turmeric, honey" were tested using disc diffusion in certain projects.

There may be some other researches too, which I might not have noticed. In the above said projects, the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) of pepper extracts were also estimated.

A sample of "Disc Diffusion plate"
Short notes over the projects: 

How to extract pepper?
The pepper grains were extracted using ethanol, methanol, dichloromethane by grinding.

Procedure followed:
Agar plates were used for carrying out disc diffusion method. Microbes were inoculated as if it will form "lawn" growth. Filter paper may be used as discs after punching it as small round shaped ones with punching machine. After dipping the sterile discs prepared in the crude extract, it is placed over the inoculated plates and the plates were incubated overnight. The next day the plates were referred for "zone of inhibition"

Similar procedure of disc diffusion must be followed for any available antibiotic such as penicillin or ampicillin or any other and it is taken as control or  used for comparison.

How we can use pepper daily for avoiding infections?

Daily we can use pepper in our recipes which will give you good immunity as it destroys harmful microbes as it passes through your food pipe to stomach.
If you don't use pepper regularly in your recipe, take 3 to 4 pepper seeds daily. Just put the seeds in your mouth, chew, have a glass of water. This will also help you to fight against common bacterial infections.
1) Only three to four seeds can be consumed per day, because, pepper also has little cancerous effect (but, very little, don't get afraid).  After all we know, "Too much of anything is good for nothing".
2) And, also don't consume pepper or pepper containing recipes, when you are taking a course of medicine, ( I mean Tablets or syrups) because, pepper is found to inhibit the effect of medicines you consume. 
Pepper also has Anti-toxic effects.

Tata.. Bye..! Wish you loads of smile and good health!