Saturday, May 19, 2012

My Exam#2

If you wanna read some useful Biotech stuff scroll down and read questions in this post. Else, start reading from the beginning.

My exams are going in a "okay" manner!
After my Microbio exam, I started playing with out preparing for the next exam! I started sitting like a ghost nowadays! Yes, I play all day, and at the end of the day I start reading for my exam by 6 or 7p.m.
And, before the day of my Basic Industrial Biotechnology exam, I played Cards :P :D , but, I never win the game :( :(

Started studying by 6p.m had dinner in between and studied non stop till the next day 5a.m! I didn't sleep at all.
I know, this is not good for health, I need a good sleep before exam. But... I don't wanna miss the fun at home during the day time by sitting alone and studying. My little brother and  friends, they all are enjoying their school summer holidays. They are making fun and much noise during day, then, how come I can read?

I'l take my book, pen, notes and start reading, they'l start shouting, "dei.. shoot shoot.. come on.. hey.." looking at their computer games! That's it, I'l close my book, jump over to games :D :)  enjoying the beauty of my day!

Towards the end of the day, they all go home, I'l sit with my books! I started spending my nights hugging my books instead of pillows. Anyways, I manage to prepare well. Let's discuss my question paper now!

My Basic Industrial Biotechnology Questions:

Questions I didn't know, two mark questions,

Polyene antibiotics and non polyene antibotics - Compare and contrast!

:( I didn't know answer for this question :(
Okay what is this polyene antibiotic? I got the answer! Referred my book "A Text book on Industrial Microbiology" By Crueger.

 Polyene Antibiotic:

A chemical compound with a carbon chain of four or more atoms and several conjugated double bonds is a polyene antibiotic. In other words, they have 26 to 38 membered lactone rings with conjugate bonds. They are generally referred as macrolides. They are effective against fungal infections. They are not suitable for plant disease control as they are sensitive to light and heat.

Non Polyene Antibiotic:

Non polyenes are generally not effective against fungus. They don't have conjugate bonds. They are generally effective only against bacterial species. 

And one more question was, regarding subunit vacccine. I attended this question correctly. But, I didn't read on this. Just, I wrote by guess from the name of the vaccine. :) 

Subunit Vaccines:

These are the vaccines which provide a subunit of a Protein as a vaccine, instead of giving a whole attenuated virus as a vaccine. 

Method of production of subunit vaccines:

1) A specific protein from the virus is isolated and it is given as vaccine. This protein acting as an antigen provokes immune response producing antibody.

2) In other case, Recombinant technique is used, by which gene  coding for the protein from a virus is introduced into another virus which produces this protein, but, this protein is not virulent, but still it can provoke immune response. This recombinant protein is used as vaccine.

The disadvantage of using this subunit vaccine is that the protein may get denatured at times.

Is Endotoxins, primary metabolites? 
I was bit confused with this question. But, I got the answer after thinking for a few seconds.

Endotoxins are generally not excreted out of the microbial cells. So, they are used up by the cells for their normal function. Primary metabolites are the metabolites which are used for normal growth and functioning of the cells. Sometimes, we refer parts of the microbes also as endotoxins. So, the answer must be : 

Yes, Endotoxins are primary metabolites! Because the primary metabolites are generally aminoacids, organic acids nucleotides etc., and endotoxins are also proteins and important metabolic products. 

Happy reading! :) Wish you good time.


  1. looks like Greek and Latin for me but love your childish passion towards bio-tech...

  2. :( You too.. saying childish. :( I'm grown up :P :D